For example, teachers can act as "culture brokers" by talking with parents to emphasize the key role they play in their children's education. Cooperative learning offers students opportunities for conversations in both languages if the groups are structured to include equal numbers of native speakers of both L1 and L2. Heath, S. B. 227–252). The kinds of software used for language learning also make a difference. Students must learn to listen and give feedback, to manage conflict, to lead, to contribute, and to take responsibility for a part of the task. Two-way immersion 101: Designing and implementing a two-way immersion education program at the elementary level. Sacramento: California Association for Bilingual Education. Even the simplest evidence of caring about the importance of literacy pays huge dividends in a young person's schooling. The results of these interviews can inform the teacher about the rich diversity in his or her classroom. Huerta-Macias, A., & Quintero, E. (1992, Summer/Fall). Delpit, L. D. (1988). The first section, "Strategies for Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Students," contains strategies appropriate for children whose primary language may or may not be English. Approaches to multicultural curriculum reform. In H. Vermeulen and J. Perlmann (Eds. Epstein, J. L., & Sheldon, S. B. Second-language learning for both groups is enhanced when they can communicate informally at certain times during the school day in their second language. (1988). Available: http://repositories.edlib.org/crede/edupractrpts/ep09. They are thus modeling the kinds of communication patterns that young people will use in school. Tharp, R. G., Estrada, P., Dalton, S. S., & Yamauchi, L. (2000). Still other studies demonstrate that many teachers fail to communicate effectively with students from diverse backgrounds; typical (and hard to change) instructional procedures often violate the behavior norms of these students' home cultures (Au, 1980; Cazden, 1988; Delpit, 1988; Heath, 1983; Ogbu, 1982). Valdez-Fallis, G. (1977). Students at risk in at risk schools: Improving environments for learning (pp. After reading the story, the teacher asks a student to retell it. The sophomores tested in 2003 outscored those in all the traditional high schools in Indianapolis. Oakland, T., & Matuszek, P. (1977). STRATEGIES FOR WORKING WITH DIVERSE LEARNERS: A Research Review Educational research directed at working with diverse learners is replete with studies identifying best practices for closing the achievement gaps that persist by race/ethnicity, socio-economics, language, and disability. For example, NNPS studies (Epstein, 2005) showed that. Students who live in communities of poverty often do not have the access to resources or highly qualified teachers that students in wealthier districts do. Gibson and Bejinez also drew on the literature on caring as "a precondition for students to feel trust and belonging within the school environment in order to establish beneficial school-based relationships" (p. 157). Teaching learners with diverse needs in inclusive settings will be successful if there is a partnership between the home, school, and the learner but due to socioeconomic status and unemployment, most parents in South Africa leave the children in the care of siblings or grandparents. Deasy, R. EDO-SP 90/2). Teaching and learning strategies that draw on the social history and the everyday lives of students and their cultures can only assist this learning process. Using visual aids and graphic organizers as well as math manipulatives. Better schooling for the children of poverty: Alternatives to conventional wisdom. In B. J. If the school context does not allow for this linguistic and cultural diversity, students are more likely to feel alienated and confused. The teacher also can structure situations in which students use computers to strengthen writing skills in their second language by providing assignments that have an immediate communicative purpose. New voices: Immigrant Students in U. S. public schools. In addition, involving students in the financial aspects of such operations (whether by fundraising or making requests of foundations) fosters involvement, responsibility, and the learning of math skills. New York: Latino Commission on Educational Reform. DeAvila, E. A., & Duncan, S. E. (1979). Parent-teacher organizations can hold meetings at times convenient for parents to attend, and they can provide translators for those who do not speak English. Reading as a social process. In an ethnographic study of the students' home life, Jordan and colleagues in the Hawaiian Community Research Project in the late 1960s and early 1970s found that older siblings were responsible for taking care of younger siblings and doing tasks cooperatively in the home without direct parental supervision. Through the facilitation of a staff member from the gender-based prevention outreach service Womanfocus, invited by the school guidance counselor, these girls came to share many aspects of their personal lives over the course of the semester. By contrast, Jordan (1995) reported on the results among Hawaiian students in public schools whose reading achievement improved greatly after culturally compatible classrooms were implemented through the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Hakuta, K., & Garcia, E. (1989). ), Latino language and communication behavior. Bowman, B. T. (1989, October). The teacher gives each group a coloring book containing line drawings of people from the Algonquin and Iroquois nations pursuing activities of daily life. That's why our office is always packed. New York: Plenum Press. Gilbert, S. E., & Gay, G. (1985, October). Such policies should include goals for nutrition education and ways to increase the physical activity of all students. Diabetes and its awful toll quietly emerge as a crisis. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education. All the skills of communication in each language are used on different days to learn, question, record, and share what has been learned from the science experiment. ), Harvard Education Review, 58(3), 280–298. New York Times, pp. The Internet can also be used to correspond with "sister schools" in the same city, another state, or even another country. Teachers can spot gaps in colleagues' efforts and work to strengthen them. The sequence of steps is then written and may be illustrated with pictures. The visual references make comprehension quicker and easier, and the modeling of language enables children to learn new grammatical structures. The age of entrance into the United States affects success in the English language, as well as other academic areas, but the degree of success is also conditioned by literacy in the home language. Changing school culture to accommodate student diversity. The students can then act out the scene, using the same basic content but saying things in a different way to someone with a different social role. Labels on the objects they use guide their inquiry. Yet these conversations also enable students to understand, as they listen to other classmates, the multitude of interpretations that are possible when viewing the same work of art. Since they knew the students had genuinely pressing responsibilities (including caring for their families and working to support them), they did not criticize students for being late to class, so long as their work was completed.