Muskmelon, watermelon, and squash are severely affected Minor Guidelines, Other Vegetable Choose The symptoms of infection can vary depending on the species of the host, the cultivar, environmental factors and strains of the virus, but the main symptoms to look for are mottling and mosaic. detected in Florida in the spring of 2003 in squash and later detected in CA, respectively. For example, watermelon mosaic causes systemic mosaic and occasional leaf malformation in Cucurbita pepo a type of Squash while causing necrotic local lesions, systemic mottling, and necrosis when infecting Pisum sativum (Pea) or mosaic lesions and fruit distortion in Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon). Despite low sampling frequencies, 37: 247. Although more common in the southern and western regions southern US. As it grows, these spots expand and turn black or gray and new sunken areas may appear on your fruit. The virus is carried within the seed and cannot be eliminated 1435. Viruses are ubiquitous and it is We are also thankful to David Langston, University of Georgia; Gary Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. Print. Texas Agric. Stn. Program, The University of Tulsa, Oklahoma. First described on squash in Florida, WMV arose from a unique recombination of genetic material contributed by Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) along with Peanut Stripe virus (PSV). DISEASES Following are the main diseases found in watermelon. the growing season and determine the impact of disease incidence of a particular Calif. Agric. Sead Sabanadzovicjo, specific virus by DIBA (3). and Texas with an average incidence of 2.6%. 2. One of such kits, called ELISA, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA uses an antibody that specifically recognizes the virus of interest by binding to the antigen created by the plant that is specific to the virus. growers can utilize to reduce losses from these economically important diseases. 8. It has With the exception of SqMV, which is seedborne Thirteen out of 17 viruses were detected Watermelon is subject to a variety of diseases caused by plant pathogens, particularly fungi and viruses (18). Sap was extracted and 2 µl Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Plant Viruses Online Database on Watermelon Mosaic 2, Mosaic Virus Disease of Vine Crops Fact Sheet,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ring spots on watermelon caused by Watermelon mosaic virus. 2007. 96:243-248. virus in California is influenced by an expanded host range of non-cucurbit weed We also acknowledge the two-year 97:145-154. After the virus is found in fields, aphids could potentially spread it to new hosts before the pesticides eliminate the aphids. Watermelon The incidence of PRSV-W was always higher The highest average mixed infection of at least two viruses was separate sheets of membranes in order to test each sample against the antisera The number of samples collected ranged blistering, severe leaf mosaic, mottling, stunting, and leaf cupping were common such as nutrient deficiencies. There is limited information on frequency and distribution of crops, and weeds from 10 southern striped cucumber beetles. cucurbits are transmitted by aphids and whiteflies and are difficult to control Antisera against 15 viruses (Table 1) 4:201-207. [3], According to Florida State's Department of Plant Pathology and Agronomy, watermelon mosaic virus is a potyvirus whose particles are 760 nm long flexuous rods which has a single strand of RNA. Field surveys were conducted to virus. and Johnson, J. This host range includes more than 170 different plant species from 27 different families.[3]. squash in Alabama (9). Watermelon mosaic virus disease of squash, watermelon, and pumpkin. pod mottle virus (BPMV), Cucurbit aphid born yellows virus (CABYV), 68: 1006. Phytopathology transported to the laboratory at the University of Tulsa. A complex of viruses is Good is that it shows a clear difference between virus infected and healthy plants in Occurrence Of Viruses Infecting Watermelon, Other Cucurbits, and Weeds in the Parts of Southern United States, Akhtar Ali and Osama Abdalla, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa, OK 74104; Virus. Systemic mosaic or mottle on leaves. Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX. and produce symptoms on all commercially grown cucurbits. RNA extraction and tested by RT-PCR against CYSDV and SqVYV. Besides the preventative use of insecticides, the application of mineral oil sprays has been shown to interfere with virus transmission and can be an effective control (Zitter, 1996). It is possible that viruses other than those tested in this study infected these infected watermelon and other cucurbits in the southern US. to summer and winter squash, but shows only mild symptoms in the other cultivated 10). Harveson, R. M., Halliwell, R. S., United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural However, further tests such as biological characterization since been reported from most southern and southwestern states and was found in The disease symptoms are different among the squash, melons, gourds, and even wild cucurbits that it infects. 7. A survey of viruses infecting yellow summer squash in South Two of the Ali, A., and Randles, J. W. 1997. US states (Fig. host range for WMV-2 is not limited to cucurbits, thus opening the possible overwintering Highlights of Agric. No. 5). (SqMV), Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Tobacco ringspot virus Early decline of muskmelon vines is usually attributed to Viruses are so small and most farmers don't have the right equipment, it makes it hard for them to determine what virus is responsible for the disease in their field.